Confianza empresarial en mercados emergentes: el efecto moderador sobre la relación entre instituciones y corrupción en México y Perú

  • Carol M. Sánchez Professor of Management, Seidman College of Business, Grand Valley State University, Grand Rapids, United States.
  • Kevin Lehnert Associate Professor of Marketing, Seidman College of Business, Grand Valley State University, Grand Rapids, United States.
Palabras clave: corrupción, confianza, instituciones, teoría basada en recursos


Las empresas en mercados emergentes se enfrentan frecuentemente a la corrupción y debilidad institucional en su entorno. La confianza empresarial puede ayudar con estos desafíos. En mercados emergentes, la confianza empresarial puede involucrar a los empleados y reducir la presión sobre las empresas, causada por debilidades institucionales. El presente es un estudio con empleados de México y Perú que mide sus percepciones de corrupción, confianza y fortaleza institucional. Por medio de análisis factorial confirmatorio y regresión lineal, se investiga cómo la confianza modera la relación entre la debilidad institucional y la corrupción percibidas. Los resultados sugieren que la confianza empresarial motiva a los empleados a ser productivos, y que las empresas que generan confianza pueden enfrentar mejor los desafíos de entornos institucionales corruptos.


Ahlin, C., & Pang, J. (2008). Are financial development and corruption control substitutes in promoting growth? Journal of Development Economics, 86, 414-433.

Altunbas, Y., & Thornton, J. (2012). Does financial development reduce corruption? Economics Letters, 114(2), 221-223.

Arvate, P. R., Curi, A. Z., Rocha, F., & Miessi Sanches, F. A. (2010). Corruption and the size of government: Causality tests for OECD and Latin American countries. Applied Economics Letters, 17(10), 1013-1017.

Ashforth, B. E., Gioia, D. A., Robinson, S. L., & Trevino, L. K. (2008). Re-viewing organizational corruption. Academy of Management Review, 33(3), 670-684.

Baek, Y.M., & Jung, C.S. (2015). Focusing the mediating role of institutional trust: How does interpersonal trust promote organizational commitment? Social Science Journal, 52(4), 481-489.

Bailey, J., & Paras, P. (2006). Perceptions and attitudes about corruption and democracy in Mexico. Mexican Studies/Estudios Mexicanos, 22(1), 57-82.

Barney, J., Ketchen Jr., D. J., & Wright, M. (2011). The future of resource-based theory: Revitalization or decline? Journal of Management, 37(5), 1299-1315.

Berrios, R. (2010). Corruption as a drag on development. Latin American Research Review, 45(2), 245-252.

Bjornskov, C. (2011). Combating corruption: On the interplay between institutional quality and social trust. The Journal of Law & Economics, 54(1), 135-159.

Blake, C. H., & Morris, S. D. (2009). Political and analytical challenges of corruption in Latin America. In C. H. Blake & S. D. Morris (Eds.), Corruption and democracy in Latin America (1-24). Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press.

Bohn, S. R. (2013). Corruption in Latin America: Understanding the perception-exposure gap. Journal of Politics in Latin America, 4(3), 67-95.

Brenes, E. R., Haar, J., & Requena, B. (2009). Latin America: Environmental and firm-level challenges. Journal of Business Research, 62, 849-853.

Brenes, E. R., Mena, M., & Molina, G. E. (2008). Key success factors for strategy implementation in Latin America. Journal of Business Research, 61, 590-598.

Chang, S. J., Van Witteloostuijn, A., & Eden, L. (2010). From the editors: Common method variance in international business research. Journal of International Business Studies, 41(2), 178-184.

Childers, J. S., & Offstein, E. (2007). Building entrepreneurial e-commerce competitive advantage: A blending of theory and practice. Advances in Competitiveness Research, 15(1), 41-53.

Ciravegna, L., Lopez, L. E., & Kundu, S. K. (2016). The internationalization of Latin American enterprises-Empirical and theoretical perspectives. Journal of Business Research, 69(6), 1957-1962.

Conway, J. M., & Lance, C. E. (2010). What reviewers should expect from authors regarding common method bias in organizational research. Journal of Business and Psychology, 25(3), 325-334.

Cuervo-Cazurra, A. (2006). Who cares about corruption? Journal of International Business Studies, 37(6), 807-822.

Cuervo-Cazurra, A. (2016). Corruption in international business. Journal of World Business, 51, 35-49.

Davis, D. E. (2006). Undermining the rule of law: Democratization and the dark side of police reform in Mexico. Latin American Politics and Society, 48(1), 55-86.

Droege, S. B., Anderson, J. R., & Bowler, M. (2003). Trust and organizational information flow. Journal of Business and Management, 9(1), 45-59.

Fisman, R., & Gatti, R. (2002). Decentralization and corruption: Evidence across countries. Journal of Public Economics, 83, 325-345.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. (1981). Structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39-50.

Fukuyama, F. (1995). Trust: The social virtues and the creation of prosperity. New York: Free Press.

Galunic, C., & Rodan, S. (1998). Resource recombinations in the firm: Knowledge structures and the potential for Schumpeterian innovation. Strategic Management Journal, 19(21), 1193-1201.

Gillespie, N. (2003). Measuring trust in working relationships: The behavioral trust inventory. Paper presented at the 5th Australian Industrial Organizational Psychology Conference, Melbourne, Australia.

Habib, M., & Zurawicki, L. (2002). Corruption and foreign direct investment. Journal of International Business Studies, 33(2), 291-307.

Haar, J. & Price, J. (2008). Can Latin America compete? Confronting the challenges of globalization. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (2006). Multivariate data analysis (6th ed.). Uppersaddle River: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Hatak, I., Fink, M., & Frank, H. (2015). Business freedom, corruption and the performance of trusting cooperation partners: Empirical findings from six European countries. Review of Managerial Science, 9, 523-547

Herzfeld, T., & Weiss, C. (2003). Corruption and legal (in) effectiveness: An empirical investigation. European Journal of Political Economy, 19(3), 621-632.

Hosmer, L.T. (1995). Trust: The connecting link between organizational theory and philosophical ethics. Academy of Management Review, 20(2), 379-403.

Hough, D., Green, K., & Plumlee, G. (2015). Impact of ethics environment and organizational trust on employee engagement. Journal of Legal, Ethical & Regulatory Issues, 18(3), 45-62.

Hume, D. (1978[1739]). A treatise of human nature (2nd ed.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Huff, L., & Kelley, L. (2005). Is collectivism a liability? The impact of culture on organizational trust and customer orientation: A seven-nation study. Journal of Business Research, 58, 96-102.

Husted, B. W. (2002). Culture and international anti-corruption agreements in Latin America. Journal of Business Ethics, 37(4), 413-422.

Ionescu, L. (2013). Perceptions of corruption in emerging economies. Economics, Management and Financial Markets, 8(1), 136.

Jain, A. (2001). Corruption: A review. Journal of Economic Surveys, 15(1), 71-121.

Jarratt, D., & Ceric, A. (2015). The complexity of trust in business collaborations. Australasian Marketing Journal (AMJ), 23(1), 2-12.

Kanter, R. M. (1988). When a thousand flowers bloom. In B. M. Staw & L. L. Cummings (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior, 10,169-211. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

Kimbro, M. B. (2002). A cross-country empirical investigation of corruption and its relationship to economic, cultural, and monitoring institutions. Journal of Accounting, Auditing and Finance, 17(4), 325-350.

Klitgaard, R. (1988). Controlling corruption. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Kvint, V. (2009). The global emerging market: Strategic management and economics. New York, London: Routledge.

Lambsdorff, J. G. (2003). How corruption affects productivity. Kyklos, 56(4), 457-474.

Lambsdorff, J. G. (2007). The institutional economics of corruption and reform. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Lange, D. (2008). A multidimensional conceptualization of organizational corruption control. Academy of Management Review, 33(3), 710-729.

Lehnert, K., Benmamoun, M., & Zhao, H. (2013). FDI inflow and human development: Analysis of FDI's impact on host countries' social welfare and infrastructure. Thunderbird International Business Review, 55(3), 285-298.

Li, S., & Wu, J. (2010). Why some countries thrive despite corruption: The role of trust in the corruption-efficiency relationship. Review of International Political Economy, 17(1), 129-154.

Lin, Y. & Wu, L. (2014). Exploring the role of dynamic capabilities in firm performance under the resource-based view framework. Journal of Business Research, 67, 407-413.

Lindell, M. K., & Whitney, D. J. (2001). Accounting for common method variance in cross-sectional research designs. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(1), 114-121.

Liu, C.-L. E. (2012). An investigation of relationship learning in cross-border buyer-supplier relationships: The role of trust. International Business Review, 21, 311-327.

Malinen, S., Wright, S., & Cammock, P. (2013). What drives organisational engagement? Evidence - Based HRM, 1(1), 96-108.

Mayer, R. C., & Davis, J. H. (1999). The effect of the performance appraisal system on trust for management: A field quasi-experiment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84, 123-136.

Mayer, R. C., Davis, C. H., & Schoorman, F. D. (1995). An integrative model of organizational trust. Academy of Management Review, 20(3), 709-734.

Mayer, R. C., & Gavin, M. B. (2005). Trust in management and performance: Who minds the shop while the employees watch the boss? Academy of Management Journal, 48(5), 874-888.

McMillan, J. (2002). Reinventing the bazaar: A natural history of markets. New York: W.W. Norton.

Misangyi, V. F., Weaver, G. R., & Elms, H. (2008). Ending corruption: The interplay among institutional logics, resources, and institutional entrepreneurs. Academy of Management Review, 33(3), 750-770.

Mocan, N. (2008). What determines corruption? International evidence from microdata. Economic Inquiry, 46(4), 493-510.

Morris, S. D. (2009). Political corruption in Mexico: The impact of democratization. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers.

Morris, S. D., & Klesner, J. L. (2010). Corruption and trust: Theoretical considerations and evidence from Mexico. Comparative Political Studies, 43(10), 1258-1285.

Neter, J., Wasserman, W., & Kutner, M. (1985). Applied linear statistical models: Regression, analysis of variance, and experimental designs. Homewood, IL: Irwin.

North, D. (1991). Institutions. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 5(1), 97-112.

O'Higgins, E. R. E. (2006). Corruption, underdevelopment, and extractive resource industries: Addressing the vicious cycle. Business Ethics Quarterly, 16, 235-254.

Park, H. (2003). Determinants of corruption: A cross-national analysis. Multinational Business Review, 11(2), 29-48.

Parboteeah, K. P., Hoegl, M., & Cullen, J. B. (2008). Ethics and religion: An empirical test of a multidimensional model. Journal of Business Ethics, 80(2), 387-398.

Peña López, J. A., & Santos, J. M. S. (2014). Does corruption have social roots? The role of culture and social capital. Journal of Business Ethics, 122(4), 697-708.

Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879-903.

Porter, M. E. (1990). New global strategies for competitive advantage. Strategy and Leadership, 18(3), 4-14.

Price, J. (2008). Public safety: The cost of living dangerously. In J. Haar & J. Price (Eds.), Can Latin America compete? Confronting the challenges of globalization (270-293). New York: Palgrave Macmillan .

Rivera-Batiz, F. L. (2001). International financial liberalization, corruption and economic growth. Review of International Economics, 9(4), 727-737.

Rodriguez, D., & Ehrichs, L. (2007). Global corruption report: Corruption in judicial systems. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press and Transparency International.

Rose-Ackerman, S. (2002). ''Grand'' corruption and the ethics of global business. Journal of Banking and Finance, 26(9), 1889-1918.

Sabel, C. F. (1993). Studied trust: Building new forms of cooperation in a volatile economy. Human Relations, 46(9), 1133-1170.

Schaefer, P. F., & Schaefer, P. C. (2008). Property, the rule of law, and development in the Americas. In J. Haar & J. Price (Eds.), Can Latin America compete? Confronting the challenges of globalization (197-213). New York: Palgrave Macmillan .

Scott, R. W. (1995). Institutions and organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Steenkamp, J. E. M., & Baumgartner, H. (1998). Assessing measurement invariance in cross-national consumer research. Journal of Consumer Research, 25(1), 78-107.

Tan, H. H., & Lim, A. K. (2009). Trust in coworkers and trust in organizations. The Journal of Psychology, 143(1), 45-66.

Teece, D. J., Pisano, G., & Shuen, A. (1997). Dynamic capabilities and strategic management. Strategic Management Journal, 18(7), 509-533.

Transparency International. (2016). Corruption Perception Index 2016. Retrieved from

Treisman, D. (2007). What have we learned about the causes of corruption from ten years of cross-national empirical research? Annual Review of Political Science, 10, 211-244.

Uslaner, E. M. (2004). Trust and corruption. In J. G. Lambsdorff, M. Taube, & M. Schramm (Eds.), The New Institutional Economics of Corruption (76-92). New York: Routledge.

Uslaner, E. M. (2013). Trust and corruption revisited: How and why trust and corruption shape each other. Quality & Quantity, 47(6), 3603-3608.

Vanhala, M., Puumalainen, K., & Blomqvist, K. (2011). Impersonal trust: The development of the construct and the scale. Personnel Review, 40(4), 485-513.

Venard, B. (2009). Organizational isomorphism and corruption: An empirical research in Russia. Journal of Business Ethics, 89(1), 59-76.

World Bank. (2016). Doing business 2016: Measuring regulatory quality and efficiency. Washington, DC: World Bank Group.

Wurgler, J. (2000). Financial markets and the allocation of capital. Journal of Financial Economics, 58, 187-214.

Yli-Renko, H., Autio, E., & Sapiencza, H. J. (2001). Social capital, knowledge acquisition, and knowledge exploitation in young technology-based firms. Strategic Management Journal, 22(6/7), 587-613.

Zhao, J. H., Kim, S. H., & Du, J. (2003). The impact of corruption and transparency on foreign direct investment: An empirical analysis. Management International Review, 43(1), 41-62.
Cómo citar
Sánchez, C., & Lehnert, K. (2018). Confianza empresarial en mercados emergentes: el efecto moderador sobre la relación entre instituciones y corrupción en México y Perú. Estudios Gerenciales, 34(147), 127-138.
Artículo de investigación