Electoral apathy among Chilean youth: New evidence for the voter registration dilemma

  • Andrés A. Acuña-Duarte Profesor asistente, Departamento de Economía y Finanzas, Universidad del Bío-Bío, Concepción, Chile Investigador, Grupo de Investigación “Análisis Económico Sectorial Aplicado” (GI 160317/EF), Universidad del Bío-Bío, Concepción, Chile

Resumen

The decision of voter enrollment among Chilean youth is re-examined in this paper. Geographical and gender differences regarding what determines voter-registration rate among youth are also explored. Electoral and socioeconomic data are collected from 272 Chilean counties in order to estimate the fractional-response and the random-effects Tobit models. The results indicate that the voter registration rate is higher among lower-income youth, which differs from earlier studies, and redefines the implications of a class-biased electorate in Chile. Furthermore, the evidence suggests an increasing political disaffection among indigenous youth that reside in rural counties.

Citas

Acuña-Duarte, A. A. (2017). Does being (un) registered to vote make any difference? Reexamining the private and social costs of voter registration. SSRN Working Paper No. 2965016.

Aleksynska, M. (2011). Civic participation of immigrants in Europe: Assimilation, origin, and destination country effects. European Journal of Political Economy, 27, 566-585.

Avery, J. M., & Peffley, M. (2005). Voter registration requirements, voter turnout, and welfare eligibility policy: Class bias matters. State Politics & Policy Quarterly, 5(1), 47-67.

Barzel, Y., & Silberberg, E. (1973). Is the act of voting rational? Public Choice, 16(1), 51-58.

Bhatti, Y., Hansen, K. M., & Wass, H. (2012). The relationship between age and turnout: A roller-coaster ride. Electoral Studies, 31(3), 588-593.

Blais, A., & Young, R. (1999). Why do people vote? An experiment in rationality. Public Choice, 99(1-2), 39-55.

Bollen, K. A., & Grandjean, B. D. (1981). The dimension(s) of democracy: Further issues in the measurement and effects of political democracy. American Sociological Review, 46(5), 651-659.

Brandon, E. (2012). Why older citizens are more likely to vote. Washington, DC: U.S. News Money., 19 March. Retrieved from Retrieved from http://money.usnews.com/money/retirement/articles/2012/03/19/why-older-citizens-are-more-likelyto-vote/

Brezzi, M., Dijkstra, L., & Ruiz, V. (2011). OECD extended regional typology: The economic performance of remote rural regions OECD Regional Development Working Papers, 2011/06. OECD Publishing.

Buchanan, J. M., & Tullock, G. (1962). The calculus of consent: Logical foundations of constitutional democracy. Michigan: University of Michigan Press.

Carlin, R. E. (2006). The decline of citizen participation in electoral politics in postauthoritarian Chile. Democratization, 13(4), 632-651.

Cavanagh, T. E. (1981). Changes in American voter turnout, 1964-1976. Political Science Quarterly, 96(1), 53-65.

Center for Information & Research on Civic Learning and Engagement. (2013). State by state youth voter turnout in 2012. CIRCLE Blog., 21 May. Retrieved from Retrieved from http://www.civicyouth.org/state-by-state-youth-voter-turnout-in-2012/

Cerda, R., & Vergara, R. (2007). Business cycle and political election outcomes: Evidence from the Chilean democracy. Public Choice, 132(1), 125-136.

Cerda, R., & Vergara, R. (2008). Government subsidies and presidential election outcomes: Evidence for a developing country. World Development, 36(11), 2470-2488.

Chamberlain, G. (1980). Analysis of covariance with qualitative data. The Review of Economic Studies, 47(1), 225-238.

Collier, D., & Levitsky, S. (1997). Democracy with adjectives: Conceptual innovation in comparative research. World Politics, 49(3), 430-451.

Contreras, G., & Navia, P. (2013). Diferencias generacionales en la participación electoral en Chile, 1988-2010. Revista de Ciencia Política, 33(2), 419-441.

Coppedge, M., Gerring, J., Altman, D., Bernhard, M., Fish, S., Hicken, A., et al. (2011). Conceptualizing and measuring democracy: A new approach. Perspectives on Politics, 9(2), 247-267.

Corvalán, A., & Cox, P. (2013). Class-biased electoral participation: The youth vote in Chile. Latin American Politics and Society, 55(3), 47-68.

Downs, A. (1957). An economic theory of political action in democracy. Journal of Political Economy, 65(2), 135-150.

Downs, A. (1962). The public interest: Its meaning in a democracy. Social Research, 29(1), 1-36.

Endersby, J. W., & Krieckhaus, J. T. (2008). Turnout around the globe: The influence of electoral institutions on national voter participation, 1972-2000. Electoral Studies, 27(4), 601-610.

Engel, E., & Araos, M. R. (1989). Desempleo, votación histórica y el plebiscito de 1988. Colección de Estudios CIEPLAN, 27, 5-17.

Erikson, R. S. (1981). Why do people vote? Because they are registered. American Politics Quarterly, 9(3), 259-276.

Esser, F., & de Vreese, C. H. (2007). Comparing young voters' political engagement in the United States and Europe. American Behavioral Scientist, 50(9), 1195-1213.

Ferejohn, J. A., & Fiorina, M. P. (1974). The paradox of not voting: A decision theoretic analysis. American Political Science Review, 68, 525-536.

Frey, B. S. (1971). Why do high income people participate more in politics. Public Choice, 11(1), 101-105.

Gersbach, H., & Kleinschmidt, T. (2009). Power to youth: Designing democracy for long-term well-being. Mathematical Social Sciences, 58, 158-172.

Highton, B. (1997). Easy registration and voter turnout. Journal of Politics, 59(2), 565-575.

Highton, B. (2004). Voter registration and turnout in the United States. Perspectives on Politics, 2(3), 507-515.

Highton, B., & Wolfinger, R. E. (1998). Estimating the effects of the National Voter Registration Act of 1993. Political Behavior, 20(2), 79-104.

Jackman, S. (2001). Voting: Compulsory. In N. J. Smelser, & P. B. Baltes (Eds.), International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences (pp. 16314-16318). Oxford: Pergamon.

Kimberlee, R. H. (2002). Why don't British young people vote at general elections? Journal of Youth Studies, 5(1), 85-98.

Kramer, G. H. (1983). The ecological fallacy revisited: Aggregate- versus individuallevel findings on economics and elections, and sociotropic voting. The American Political Science Review, 77(1), 92-111.

Krasa, S., & Polborn, M. K. (2009). Is mandatory voting better than voluntary voting? Games and Economic Behavior, 66, 275-291.

Leighley, J. E., & Nagler, J. (1992). Socioeconomic class bias in turnout, 1964-1988: The voters remain the same. The American Political Science Review, 86(3), 725-736.

Lichtman, A. J. (1974). Correlation, regression, and the ecological fallacy: A critique. Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 4(3), 417-433.

Matsusaka, J. G., & Palda, F. (1993). The Downsian voter meets the ecological fallacy. Public Choice, 77(4), 855-878.

May, J. D. (1978). Defining democracy: A bid for coherence and consensus. Political Studies, 26(1), 1-14.

May, R. M., & Martin, B. (1975). Voting models incorporating interactions between voters. Public Choice, 22(1), 37-53.

Michelson, M. R. (2006). Mobilizing the Latino youth vote: Some experimental results. Social Science Quarterly, 87(5), 1188-1206.

Milligan, K., Moretti, E., & Oreopoulos, P. (2004). Does education improve citizenship? Evidence from the United States and the United Kingdom. Journal of Public Economics, 88, 1667-1695.

Ministerio de Desarrollo Social. (2011). Libro de Códigos Encuesta CASEN 2011. Base de datos tradicional. Serie Documentos Metodológicos No. 3. Santiago: Gobierno de Chile.

Ministerio de Planificación. (2000). Manual de usuario Encuesta CASEN 2000. Santiago: Gobierno de Chile .

Ministerio de Planificación. (2003). Manual de usuario Encuesta CASEN 2003. Santiago: Gobierno de Chile .

Ministerio de Planificación. (2006). Manual de usuario Encuesta CASEN 2006. Santiago: Gobierno de Chile .

Ministerio de Planificación. (2009). Manual de usuario Encuesta CASEN 2009. Santiago: Gobierno de Chile .

Mundlak, Y. (1978). On the pooling of time series and cross section data. Econometrica, 46(1), 69-85.

Navia, P. (2004). Participación electoral en Chile, 1988-2001. Revista de Ciencia Política, 24(1), 81-103.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation, Development - OECD. (2011). OECD regional typology. Directorate for Public Governance and Territorial Development.

Pan Ke Shon, J. L. (2004). Determinants of electoral non-registration and sensitive neighbourhoods in France. Population, 59(1), 143-156.

Panzer, J., & Paredes, R. D. (1991). The role of economic issues in elections: The case of the 1988 Chilean Presidential Referendum. Public Choice, 71(1-2), 51-59.

Papke, L. E., & Wooldridge, J. M. (1996). Econometric methods for fractional response variables with an application to 401(K) plan participation rates. Journal of Applied Econometrics, 11(6), 619-632.

Papke, L. E., & Wooldridge, J. M. (2008). Panel data methods for fractional response variables with an application to test pass rates. Journal of Econometrics, 145(1-2), 121-133.

Riker, W. H., & Ordeshook, P. C. (1968). A theory of the calculus of voting. The American Political Science Review, 62(1), 25-42.

Settle, R. F., & Abrams, B. A. (1976). The determinants of voter participation: A more general model. Public Choice, 27(1), 81-89.

Silberman, J., & Durden, G. (1975). The rational behavior theory of voter participation: Evidence from Congressional elections. Public Choice, 23(1), 101-108.

Stone, M. N. (1985). Voter registration: Context and results. The Urban Lawyer, 17(3), 519-528.

Tollison, R., Crain, M., & Pautler, P. (1975). Information and voting: An empirical note. Public Choice, 24(1), 43-49.

Tollison, R. D., & Willett, T. D. (1973). Some simple economics of voting and not voting. Public Choice, 16(1), 59-71.

Toro, S. (2007). La inscripción electoral de los jóvenes en Chile. Factores de incidencia y aproximaciones al debate. In Centro de Estudios Públicos (Ed.), Modernización del Régimen Electoral Chileno (pp. 101-122). Santiago, Chile: CEP.

Wass, H. (2007). The effects of age, generation and period on turnout in Finland 1975-2003. Electoral Studies, 26(3), 648-659.

Wolfinger, R. E., Highton, B., & Mullin, M. (2005). How postregistration laws affect the turnout of citizens registered to vote. State Politics & Policy Quarterly, 5(1), 1-23.

Wooldridge, J. M. (2002). Econometric analysis of cross section and panel data. Cambridge: The MIT Press.

Xenos, M. A., & Kyoung, K. (2008). Rocking the vote and more: An experimental study of the impact of youth political portals. Journal of Information Technology & Politics, 5(2), 175-189.
Publicado
2017-12-15
Cómo citar
Acuña-Duarte, A. (2017). Electoral apathy among Chilean youth: New evidence for the voter registration dilemma. Estudios Gerenciales, 33(145), 341-351. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.estger.2017.11.005
Sección
Artículo de investigación