Apoyo del supervisor: su influencia en la autonomía, cohesión y percepción de apoyo organizacional en una dependencia del gobierno


  • Aurora Irma Máynez-Guaderrama Profesora-Investigadora, Instituto de Ingeniería y Tecnología, Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Ciudad Juárez, México. https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8174-3807



Palabras clave:

supervisor, apoyo organizacional percibido, autonomía, cohesión, gobierno, México


El objetivo de este trabajo fue establecer, en una dependencia del sector público mexicano, si el apoyo que brinda el supervisor influye en la percepción de apoyo organizacional, la autonomía y la cohesión grupal. El método de investigación fue cuantitativo, descriptivo, no experimental y transversal con un modelo de ecuaciones estructurales. Los resultados evidencian que la percepción del apoyo que brinda el supervisor favorece la autonomía, la cohesión y la percepción de apoyo organizacional. Estos hallazgos permiten avanzar en el conocimiento de sus efectos en el sector gubernamental, contexto en el cual esta clase de trabajos son escasos. Se recomienda profundizar en el efecto de la edad en la relación entre la percepción del apoyo que brinda el supervisor y la cohesión, dado que se encontraron diferencias significativas asociadas a ella.


Los datos de descarga aún no están disponibles.


Adler, M. A. (1993). Gender differences in job autonomy. The Sociological Quarterly, 34(3), 449-46. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1533-8525.1993.tb00121.x

Afzal, S., Arshad, M., Saleem, S. y Farooq, O. (2019). The impact of perceived supervisor support on employees’ turnover intention and task performance: Mediation of self-efficacy. Journal of Management Development, 38(5), 369-382. https://doi.org/10.1108/JMD-03-2019-0076

Ali, M., Usman, M., Pham, N. T., Agyemang-Mintah, P. y Akhtar, N. (2020). Being ignored at work: Understanding how and when spiritual leadership curbs workplace ostracism in the hospitality industry. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 91, 102696. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2020.102696

Allen, M. W., Armstrong, D. J., Reid, M. F. y Riemenschneider, C. K. (2008). Factors impacting the perceived organizational support of IT employees. Information & Management, 45(8), 556-563. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.im.2008.09.003

Aoyagi, M. W., Cox, R. H. y McGuire, R. T. (2008). Organizational citizenship behavior in sport: Relationships with leadership, team cohesion, and athlete satisfaction. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 20(1), 25-41. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200701784858

Bakker, A. B. y de Vries, J. D. (2021). Job demands-resources theory and self-regulation: New explanations and remedies for job burnout. Anxiety, Stress, & Coping, 34(1), 1-21. https://doi.org/10.1080/10615806.2020.1797695

Barroso, C., Carrión, G. C. y Roldán, J. L. (2010). Applying maximum likelihood and PLS on different sample sizes: Studies on SERVQUAL model and employee behavior model. En V. Esposito- Vinzi, W. W. Chin, J. Henseler y H. Wang (Eds.), Handbook of partial least squares: Concepts, methods and applications (pp. 427-447). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Boateng, F. D. (2014). Perceived organizational support and police officer effectiveness: Testing the organizational support theory in Ghana. International Criminal Justice Review, 24(2), 134-150. https://doi.org/10.1177/1057567714536907

Carron, A. V. (1982). Cohesiveness in sport groups: Interpretations and considerations. Journal of Sport psychology, 4(2), 123-138.

Carron, A. V., Bray, S. R. y Eys, M. A. (2002). Team cohesion and team success in sport. Journal of Sports Sciences, 20(2), 119-126. https://doi.org/10.1080/026404102317200828

Chavarría-Islas, R. A., Colunga-Gutiérrez, F. J., Loria-Castellanos, J. y Peláez-Méndez, K. (2017). Síndrome de burnout en médicos docentes de un hospital de 2.° nivel en México. Educación Médica, 18(4), 254-261. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.edumed.2016.09.001

Chen, G., Kirkman, B. L., Kanfer, R., Allen, D. y Rosen, B. (2007). A multilevel study of leadership, empowerment, and performance in teams. Journal of applied psychology, 92(2), 331-346. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.92.2.331

Chin, W. W. (1998). Commentary: Issues and opinion on structural equation modeling. MIS Quarterly, 22(1), 7-16.

Chin, W. W. (2010). How to write up and report pls analyses. En V. Esposito-Vinzi, W. W. Chin , J. Henseler y H. Wang (Eds.), handbook of partial least squares: Concepts, methods and applications (pp. 655-690). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer .

Chiniara, M. y Bentein, K. (2016). Linking servant leadership to individual performance: Differentiating the mediating role of autonomy, competence and relatedness need satisfaction. The Leadership Quarterly, 27(1), 124-141. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2015.08.004

Cole, M. S., Bruch, H. y Vogel, B. (2006). Emotion as mediators of the relations between perceived supervisor support and psychological hardiness on employee cynicism. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27(4), 463-484. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.381

Deci, E. L. y Ryan, R. M. (2002). Overview of self-determination theory: An organismic dialectical perspective. En E. L. Deci y R. M. Ryan (Eds.), Handbook of self-determination research (pp. 3-33). Rochester, N.Y.: The University of Rochester Press.

DeConinck, J. B. (2010). The effect of organizational justice, perceived organizational support, and perceived supervisor support on marketing employees' level of trust. Journal of Business Research, 63(12), 1349-1355. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2010.01.003

Derrick, K. S. (2019). Becoming the boss: Using schlossberg's transition theory to explore new supervisors' transition to supervisory roles at a federal government agency (doctor of Education), Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts.

Eisenberger, R., Malone, G. P. y Presson, W. D. (2016). Optimizing perceived organizational support to enhance employee engagement. Recuperado el 30 de junio de 2020, de: https://n9.cl/9ohxi

Eisenberger, R., Stinglhamber, F., Vandenberghe, C., Sucharski, I. L. y Rhoades, L. (2002). Perceived supervisor support: Contributions to perceived organizational support and employee retention. Journal of applied psychology, 87(3), 565-573. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.87.3.565

Eys, M. y Kim, J. (2017). Team building and group cohesion in the context of sport and performance psychology. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780190236557.013.186

Gagné, M. y Deci, E. L. (2005). Self-determination theory and work motivation. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26(4), 331-362. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.322

Gallie, D., Zhou, Y., Felstead, A. y Green, F. (2012). Teamwork, skill development and employee welfare. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 50(1), 23-46. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8543.2010.00787.x

Giorgi, G., Dubin, D. y Perez, J. F. (2016). Perceived organizational support for enhancing welfare at work: A regression tree model. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 1770. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01770

Gordon, S., Adler, H., Day, J. y Sydnor, S. (2019). Perceived supervisor support: A study of select-service hotel employees. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 38, 82-90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhtm.2018.12.002

Griffin, M. A., Patterson, M. G. y West, M. A. (2001). Job satisfaction and teamwork: The role of supervisor support. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 22(5), 537-550. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.101

Hair, J. F., Risher, J. J., Sarstedt, M. y Ringle, C. M. (2019). When to use and how to report the results of PLS-SEM. European Business Review, 31(1), 2-24. https://doi.org/10.1108/EBR-11-2018-0203

Hair, J. F., Howard, M. C. y Nitzl, C. (2020). Assessing measurement model quality in PLS-SEM using confirmatory composite analysis. Journal of Business Research, 109, 101-110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2019.11.069

Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M. y Sinkovics, R. R. (2009). The use of partial least squares path modeling in international marketing. En R. S. Rudolf y N. G. Pervez (Eds.), New Challenges to International Marketing (vol. 20, pp. 277-319). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M. y Sarstedt, M. (2015). A new criterion for assessing discriminant validity in variance-based structural equation modeling Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 43(1), 115-135. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11747-014-0403-8

Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M. y Sarstedt, M. (2016). Testing measurement invariance of composites using partial least squares. International Marketing Review, 33(3), 405-431. https://doi.org/10.1108/IMR-09-2014-0304

Hornaday, R. W. (2001). Sex composition, cohesion, consensus, potency and performance of simulation teams. Paper presented at the Developments in Business Simulation and Experiential Learning: Proceedings of the Annual ABSEL Conference, San Diego, California.

Jin, M. H. y McDonald, B. (2016). Understanding employee engagement in the public sector: The role of immediate supervisor, perceived organizational support, and learning opportunities. The American Review of Public Administration, 47(8), 881-897. https://doi.org/10.1177/0275074016643817

Karam, E. P., Hu, J., Davison, R. B., Juravich, M., Nahrgang, J. D., Humphrey, S. E. y Scott-DeRue, D. (2019). Illuminating the ‘face’ of justice: A meta-analytic examination of leadership and organizational justice. Journal of Management Studies, 56(1), 134- 171. https://doi.org/10.1111/joms.12402

Koys, D. J. y DeCotiis, T. A. (1991). Inductive measures of psychological climate. Human relations, 44(3), 265-285. https://doi.org/10.1177/001872679104400304

Kundu-Subhash, C. y Lata, K. (2017). Effects of supportive work environment on employee retention: Mediating role of organizational engagement. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 25(4), 703-722. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJOA-12-2016-1100

Little, M. E. (2017). The moderating effect of gender and tenure on the relationship between perceived supervisor support and organizational commitment (master of Science). San José State University, San José, California.

Lloréns-Montes, F. J., Ruiz-Moreno, A. y García-Morales, V. (2005). Influence of support leadership and teamwork cohesion on organizational learning, innovation and performance: An empirical examination. Technovation, 25(10), 1159-1172. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.technovation.2004.05.002

Lu, X. y Guy, M. E. (2019). Emotional labor, performance goal orientation, and burnout from the perspective of conservation of resources: A United States/China comparison. Public Performance & Management Review, 42(3), 685-706. https://doi.org/10.1080/15309576.2018.1507916

Matthews, L. (2017). Applying multigroup analysis in PLS-SEM: A step-by-step process. En H. Latan y R. Noonan (Eds.), Partial least squares path modeling: Basic concepts, methodological issues and applications (pp. 219-243). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Nwobia, I. E. y Aljohani, M. S. (2017). The effect of job dissatisfaction and workplace bullying on turnover intention: Organization climate and group cohesion as moderators. International Journal of Marketing Studies, 9(3), 136-143.

Nzuki, R. M. (2020). The influence perceived supervisor support on organization performance at Kakamega County Government, Kenya. Archives of Business Research, 8(5), 191-200. https://doi.org/10.14738/abr.85.8193

Öhman, A., Keisu, B.-I. y Enberg, B. (2017). Team social cohesion, professionalism, and patient-centeredness: Gendered care work, with special reference to elderly care - a mixed methods study. BMC Health Services Research, 17, 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-017-2326-9

Park, S., Kim, E.-J. y Kang, H.-S. (2017). Does supervisor support make a difference in employees’ training and job performance? Academy of Management Proceedings, 2017(1), https://doi.org/11418.10.5465/AMBPP.2017.11418abstract

Patterson, M. G., West, M. A., Shackleton, V. J., Dawson, J. F., Lawthom, R., Maitlis, S., y Wallace, A. M. (2005). Validating the organizational climate measure: links to managerial practices, productivity and innovation. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26(4), 379-408. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.312

Penning de Vries, J., Knies, E. y Leisink, P. (2020). Shared perceptions of supervisor support: What processes make supervisors and employees see eye to eye? Review of Public Personnel Administration, OnlineFirst. https://doi.org/10.1177/0734371X20942814

Prati, L. M., Douglas, C., Ferris, G. R., Ammeter, A. P. y Buckley, M. R. (2003). Emotional intelligence, leadership effectiveness, and team outcomes. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 11(1), 21-40. https://doi.org/10.1108/eb028961

Reeve, J. (2015). Giving and summoning autonomy support in hierarchical relationships. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 9(8), 406-418. https://doi.org/10.1111/spc3.12189

Reid, M. F., Allen, M. W., Riemenschneider, C. K. y Armstrong, D. J. (2008). The role of mentoring and supervisor support for state IT employees' affective organizational commitment. Review of Public Personnel Administration, 28(1), 60-78. https://doi.org/10.1177/0734371X07311703

Rhoades, L. y Eisenberger, R. (2002). Perceived organizational support: a review of the literature. Journal of applied psychology, 87(4), 698-714. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.87.4.698

Rozell, E. J. y Gundersen, D. E. (2003). The effects of leader impression management on group perceptions of cohesion, consensus, and communication. Small Group Research, 34(2), 197-222. https://doi.org/10.1177/1046496402250431

Salas, E., Grossman, R., Hughes, A. M. y Coultas, C. W. (2015). Measuring team cohesion: Observations from the Science. Human Factors, 57(3), 365-374. https://doi.org/10.1177/0018720815578267

Seidel, G. y Back, A. (2009). Success factor validation for global ERP programmes. Paper presented at the 17th European Conference on Information Systems, Verona.

Severt, J. B. y Estrada, A. X. (2015). On the function and structure of group cohesion. En E. Salas, W. Vessey y A. X. Estrada. (Eds.), Team Cohesion: Advances in Psychological Theory, Methods and Practice (vol. 17, pp. 3-24). Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Sguera, F., Bagozzi, R. P., Huy, Q. N., Boss, R. W. y Boss, D. S. (2018). The more you care, the worthier i feel, the better i behave: How and when supervisor support influences (un)ethical employee behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 153(3), 615-628. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-016-3339-8

Shanock, L. R. y Eisenberger, R. (2006). When supervisors feel supported: Relationships with subordinates' perceived supervisor support, perceived organizational support, and performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(3), 689-695. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.91.3.689

Shi, X. y Gordon, S. (2020). Organizational support versus supervisor support: The impact on hospitality managers’ psychological contract and work engagement. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 87, 102374. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2019.102374

Slemp, G. R., Kern, M. L. y Vella-Brodrick, D. A. (2015). Workplace well-being: The role of job crafting and autonomy support. Psychology of Well-Being, 5(1), 7. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13612-015-0034-y

Slemp, G. R., Kern, M. L., Patrick, K. J. y Ryan, R. M. (2018). Leader autonomy support in the workplace: A meta-analytic review. Motivation and Emotion, 42(5), 706-724. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11031-018-9698-y

Smit, W., Stanz, K. y Bussin, M. (2015). Retention preferences and the relationship between total rewards, perceived organisational support and perceived supervisor support: Original research. SA Journal of Human Resource Management, 13(1), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.4102/sajhrm.v13i1.665

Tekleab, A. G., Karaca, A., Quigley, N. R. y Tsang, E. W. K. (2016). Re-examining the functional diversity-performance relationship: The roles of behavioral integration, team cohesion, and team learning. Journal of Business Research, 69(9), 3500-3507. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2016.01.036

Thompson, C. A. y Prottas, D. J. (2006). Relationships among organizational family support, job autonomy, perceived control, and employee well-being. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 1(1), 100-118.

Trottier, T., Van Wart, M. y Wang, X. (2008). Examining the nature and significance of leadership in government organizations. Public Administration Review, 68(2), 319-333. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6210.2007.00865.x

van der Voet, J. y Steijn, B. (2020). Team innovation through collaboration: How visionary leadership spurs innovation via team cohesion. Public Management Review, 1-20. https://doi.org/10.1080/14719037.2020.1743344

Vansteenkiste, M., Ryan, R. M. y Soenens, B. (2020). Basic psychological need theory: Advancements, critical themes, and future directions. Motivation and Emotion, 44(1), 1-31. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11031-019-09818-1

Villa-George, F. I., Moreno-Jiménez, B., Rodríguez-Muñoz, A. y Sanz- Vergel, A. I. (2019). Engagement como indicador de salud laboral: propiedades psicométricas del UWES en mexicanos. VERTIENTES Revista Especializada en Ciencias de la Salud, 22(1), 42-48.

Wang, A.-C. y Cheng, B.-S. (2010). When does benevolent leadership lead to creativity? The moderating role of creative role identity and job autonomy. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 31(1), 106- 121. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.634





Artículo de investigación

Cómo citar

Apoyo del supervisor: su influencia en la autonomía, cohesión y percepción de apoyo organizacional en una dependencia del gobierno. (2021). Estudios Gerenciales, 37(160), 448-459. https://doi.org/10.18046/j.estger.2021.160.4195